The Kimberley Process (KP) is a trade regime established in 2003 with the aim of enhancing transparency and oversight in the diamond supply chain. The primary objective of KP is to eradicate the trade in conflict diamonds, which are rough diamonds sold by rebel groups or their allies to finance conflict against legitimate governments. The KP promotes legitimate trade in rough diamonds among participating countries by ensuring that they enforce a certification scheme that enhances transparency and security and prohibits trade with non-participants. Currently, 85 countries, including the United States and the EU (which represents EU member states), participate in the KP, with industry and civil society serving as observers. To ensure compliance, the KP certification scheme mandates that rough diamonds are shipped in tamper-proof containers and exported with a Kimberley Process Certificate that verifies that the rough diamonds have not contributed to rebel movements.
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme
The core of this regime is the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) under which States implement safeguards on shipments of rough diamonds and certify them as “conflict free".
Under the terms of the KPCS participants must:
- Satisfy ‘minimum requirements’ and establish national legislation, institutions and import/export controls
- Commit to transparent practices and to the exchange of critical statistical data
- Trade only with fellow members who also satisfy the fundamentals of the agreement
- Certify shipments as conflict-free and provide the supporting certification